Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy is the removal of soft tissue from inside bone. Bone marrow grows inside some of the larger bones in the body. It produces platelets and red and white blood cells.
Why the Test is Performed
Your doctor may order this test if you have abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells on a complete blood count. It may also be done to check for other diseases in the bone marrow, (including cancer), or certain types of anemia.
It may also be done to see how well a person responds to treatment for certain cancers.
How the Test is Performed
The bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider’s office or in a hospital. The sample is usually taken from the hip bone. The skin is cleansed, and a local anesthetic is injected to numb the skin.
An aspirate is usually performed before the biopsy is taken. After the skin is numbed, the aspirate needle is inserted into the bone, and a syringe is used to withdraw the liquid bone marrow. The needle will then be removed and repositioned.
The biopsy needle is then inserted into the bone. The center of the needle is removed and the needle is moved deeper into the bone. This creates a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The needle is then removed, along with the bone marrow sample. Pressure is applied to the biopsy site to stop bleeding, and a bandage is applied.
How to Prepare for the Test
Tell the health care provider:
- If you are allergic to any medications
- What medications you are taking
- If you have bleeding problems
- If you are pregnant
You must sign a consent form.
How the Test Will Feel
You will feel a sharp sting when the numbing medicine is injected. You may feel a brief, sharp pain when the liquid (aspirate) is removed.
The biopsy needle may also cause a brief, usually more dull, pain. Since the inside of the bone cannot be numbed, this test may cause some discomfort. However, not all patients have such pain.